Topic 1: Concepts, Theory, and Policy

The changing nature of the missions being carried out has created a new reality. This reality demands that existing concepts, theories, and policies be revisited and discarded or adjusted, as necessary and new concepts, theory, and policy be developed.

Paper 002

Abstract Title: Executable Architectures Concept and Methodology
Point of Contact (POC): Eui Soon Kim
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: +82-2-961-1664, +82-10-5081-2462
POC Organization: Korea Institute for Defense Analyses
Country: Republic pf Korea
Authors: Eui Soon Kim, Korea Institute for Defense Analyses

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Paper 011

Abstract Title: A global model for direction and coordination in multi-actor crisis management
Point of Contact (POC): Olof Ekman
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: +46-705-251-275
POC Organization: Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Country: Sweden
Authors: Olof Ekman, Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Christian Uhr, Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency

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Paper 012

Abstract Title: Implications of Maritime Information Warfare for Naval C2

Point of Contact (POC): Mark G Hazen

POC Email Address: 

POC Phone Number: 902 426 3100 x176

POC Organization: DRDC Atlantic Research Centre

Country: Canada

Authors: Mark G Hazen, Francine Desharnais, Anthony Isenor and Tania Randall

Abstract: With the increasing importance of Cyber in all aspects of modern warfare there has also been an increased interest by the naval community in understanding the related area of net-centric Information Warfare.  While the control of information has long been a significant supporting activity, the aim of this paper is to explore the command and control (C2) implications of considering Maritime Information activities as a “warfare” area in and of itself; that is, equivalent to the other warfare areas such as surface, above and underwater warfare.  In particular, the paper examines whether analogies to the well-known physical warfare areas can provide insight into the command and control required for navies to operate in the information space.  As an example, the paper investigates what are the information space analogies to physical warfare threats, targets, sensors, effectors and environmental features.  One particular difference is that the information space is characterized by more dynamic resources and has a different geography.

Paper 014 

Abstract Title: Command and Control in the Information Age
Point of Contact (POC): Lenard Simpson
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: 757-243-7027
POC Organization: Optech Inc.
Country: USA
Authors: Resit Unal, Ph.D. -Old Dominion University
Paul W. Phister, Jr., Ph.D. - Retired
Chuck Keating, Ph.D - Old Dominion University
Chuck Keating, Ph.D - Old Dominion University
Marvin L. Simpson, Jr. -Optech Inc.

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Paper 022

Abstract Title: Rowan University Combat System Curricula Development

Point of Contact (POC): Tod Schuck

POC Email Address:

POC Phone Number: 856-359-3097

POC Organization: Lockheed Martin/Rowan University

Country: USA

Authors: Tod Schuck - Lockheed Martin/Rowan University
Ingar Blosfelds - Lockheed Martin/Rowan University

Abstract: Beginning in the fall semester of 2014, Lockheed Martin MST and Rowan University in Glassboro NJ initiated a Combat System Engineering (CSE) concentration for students in the school of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Students in this concentration learn how to design, understand, and evaluate combat systems and take courses that cover systems engineering, command and control principles, communication systems, guidance systems, sensor systems, and the integration of these systems.

Courses for this concentration include Radar Systems, Command and Control (C2), Introduction to C4ISR Systems, and Weapons Systems. At some time in the near future, Rowan plans to formulate a Bachelors Degree program in CSE as well as a Masters Degree in CSE.

This presentation describes the subject areas developed and the Lockheed Martin/Rowan approach for Combat Systems Engineering curricula development. As an example, for the C2 course, the main text is the DoD CCRP Understanding Command and Control book by Alberts and Hayes. However, the approach for a semester-long class in C2 requires additional content such as the origin of command principles from Sun Tzu and Clausewitz, complex adaptive systems (CAS), systems-of-systems (SoS), evolvability, robustness, resilience, information theory, cybernetics, OODA loops, etc.

Paper 024

Abstract Title: Linking Leadership into C2 Theory using Functions and Norms

Point of Contact (POC): Tim Grant

POC Email Address:

POC Phone Number: +31 638 193 749

POC Organization: Retired But Active Researchers (R-BAR)

Country: Netherlands

Authors: Tim Grant, R-BAR

Abstract: In military doctrine, leadership is one of three interrelated aspects of command. Leadership is a social process by which the leader influences a group of people to achieve a common goal. Different situations demand different leadership styles, implying varying amounts of regulation and delegation, inspiration and coercion. During the first half of the 20th century, leadership theory focused on the leader’s physical and intellectual traits. Thereafter, the focus widened to the leader’s behaviour, the situation’s demands, the followers’ nature, and the leader-follower relationship.

By contrast, C2 theory is fragmented into conceptual “islands” covering the other two aspects of command: decision making and control. Decision making is the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a course of action from a set of alternatives. It relies on intuition and good judgement based on awareness and intelligent interpretation of the situation, guided by norms and values. Control is the coordination of activity, often delegated to specialist staff. Current C2 systems employ information and communications technologies predominantly to support their users in exchanging information, building up situation awareness, and making decisions.

The purpose of this paper is reduce the conceptual fragmentation by linking leadership theory to C2 theory using functions and norms. It consists of six sections. After the introduction, the second and third sections briefly review the relevant elements of leadership theory and C2 theory, respectively. The fourth section links leadership theory to C2 theory and decision process models. Tannenbaum & Schmidt’s continuum is linked to the Allocation of Decision Rights dimension in the C2 approach space, and the C2 functions from integrated leadership models are linked to OODA processes. The fifth section uses a simple operational scenario to illustrate the utility of linking leadership and C2 theory. Finally, the sixth section draws conclusions and makes recommendations for further work.

Paper 026

Abstract Title: Analyzing the Latest War Morphology in Current Age
Point of Contact (POC): Quan Mei
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: +8618700867879
POC Organization: Air Force Engineering University Information and Navigation Institute
Country: China
Authors: Quan Mei

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Paper 028

Abstract Title: Trust, Distrust and Mistrust in Organizations and Information Systems

Point of Contact (POC): Dr. Richard E. Hayes

POC Email Address:

POC Phone Number: 703 533 8449

POC Organization: Evidence Based Research, Inc.

Country: USA

Authors: : Dr. Richard E. (Dick) Hayes; Dr. Margaret Daly Hayes

Abstract: The theme for the 20th ICCRTS is “C2, Cyber, and Trust.”  This topic is extremely important, with trust issues exposed widely in the realms of cybercrime and hacking; betrayal of US Government materials by Manning, Snowden and others, and public distrust of Government in the cyber arena reflected in the press, Congressional hearings, and efforts by Apple, Microsoft and others to sell encryption tools designed to block law enforcement and other Government efforts to exploit cell phone records.  This is made all the more important by research that shows the advantages of more open and richly connected systems in complex operations.  However, meaningful progress on the issues associated with the theme of the 20th ICCRTS requires an understanding that Trust is part of a cluster of relevant concepts, including Distrust and Mistrust.  Moreover, research on Trust in the contexts of C2 and Cyber needs to be informed by what is already known about these phenomena, particularly in the contexts of psychology, organization theory and information systems.  Without these definitions and awareness of what is already known in these fields, the development and implementation of effective policies and practices will be all but impossible – driven by trial and error and littered with false starts.  This paper explores the best of existing research and experience in order to suggest relevant policies and their limits as well as best practices that can be expected to improve the situation.

Paper 033

Abstract Title: Robotics Operator Manager ACT-R Model and Validation
Point of Contact (POC):  Daniel N. Cassenti
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: 410 278 5859
POC Organization:  U.S. Army Research Laboratory
Country:  US
Authors: Daniel N. Cassenti and Kristin E. Shaefer

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Paper 052

Abstract Title: Impact of Adaptive Planning & Execution (APEX) on Mission Planning & Reporting

Point of Contact (POC): John Anderson

POC Email Address:

POC Phone Number: 703-626-5646

POC Organization: Cougaar Software, Inc.

Country: USA

Authors: John A. Anderson, Cougaar Software, Inc.

Abstract: The Adaptive Planning and Execution (APEX) concept as defined by the AP Roadmap II (2008) was targeted for Joint Operational Planning and Execution System (JOPES). APEX focuses on exploiting a net-centric operational environment building on its Living Plan concept. The concept assumes that mission orders and plans can be semantically represented to express task assignments, and when tied to the battlespace environment, execution can be monitored and the plans managed during execution to reflect progress and changes over time. As demonstrated in the USMC Expeditionary Logistics Wargames, applying adaptive planning concepts at the operational and tactical levels necessitates a review of traditional C2 procedures and policies.

Orchestrating and monitoring operations of operational and tactical units are inherent capabilities for APEX, tying the operations at the tactical edge to the missions defined in the JOPES processes and systems. CSI, under a series of projects funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), is developing the Marine Corps Adaptive Planning (MCAP) capability. The MCAP toolsuite implements an APEX Living Plan that represents missions tied to situational data to support distributed collaborative mission analysis, Course of Action (COA) development, Logistics Assessment and execution management—all targeted for operational and tactical mission planning and management. By digitizing the mission plan and its assumptions, and subsequently monitoring its evolution and execution and related battlespace information from the operational environment, a foundation is established for various information dominance goals such as: integration of Operations, Logistics and Intelligence; Sense and Respond Logistics; and Big Data analysis of battlespace operations. The dynamics of applying Living Plans at the tactical level significantly transforms mission specification and approval, communication, situational monitoring, and plan management.

This paper describes the benefits and challenges of applying APEX concepts to the Marine Corps Planning Process (MCPP) in an operational environment, and solutions implemented in MCAP to orchestrate planning and mission execution. Traditional doctrine, policies and procedures may be impacted as plans are collaboratively developed and missions executed in an environment that allows those plans to respond to changes in the battlespace. By dynamically updating mission plans and status, and sharing those changes electronically across the forces significantly increases situational awareness and unity of effort. However, tasks and activities performed by tactical units (e.g., companies, squads, special teams) that may traditionally be executed under the authority of an overarching OpOrder, will need to be explicitly captured and tracked throughout execution along with related battlespace information such as operational conditions and resource consumption. Solutions for addressing the perceived burden of planning, scheduling and tracking must be addressed, as well as the related data and security management implications. The paper will describe the solutions applied in the MCAP system, and lessons-learned from participation in the USMC Expeditionary Warfare wargames, a USMC program designed to evaluate and demonstrate emerging technologies and improved processes in support of the warfighter.

Paper 057

Abstract Title: Impact-Focused Cyber-Incident Response
Point of Contact (POC):  Eur Ing Kevin Mepham
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number:  +31 45 5263547
POC Organization:  Brunel University London
Country:  Netherlands
Authors:  Eur Ing Kevin Mepham, Panos Louvieris, Dr. Gheorghita Ghinea

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Paper 060

Abstract Title: An Empirical Study on the Development of a Conceptual Reference Model for Command and Control Based on Trust.
Point of Contact (POC): Byungjin PARK
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: + 82-10-2065-4733
POC Organization: Dr. Byungjin Park, Defense Network Centric Forum, Jonghap Hall 911, Ajou University
Country: ROK, Republic of Korea
Authors: PARK, Byungjin, Incorporated Association Defense NCW Forum

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Paper 061

Abstract Title: A method for IO manning requirements assessments using the N2C2M2 – or enlightenment through conceptual development

Point of Contact (POC): Aasmund Thuv

POC Email Address:

POC Phone Number: +47 6380 7375

POC Organization: Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI)

Country: Norway

Authors: Aasmund Thuv, Geir Enemo

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Paper 068

Abstract Title: Comparative Studies of Command and Control Structure between ROK and US Field Artillery Battalion
Point of Contact (POC): Ahram Kang
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: 82-10-9167-1014
POC Organization: Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Country: Republic of Korea
Authors: Ah-Ram Kang - Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Do-Yun Kim - Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Jun-Seok Lee - Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Jang-Won Bae - Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Chul Moon - Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology

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Paper 070

Abstract Title: Quantitative Analysis on Action Policies of Human-Involved Information Delivery for Time-Sensitive Targets

Point of Contact (POC): Chi-jung Jung

POC Email Address:

POC Phone Number: +82-10-5089-2021

POC Organization: Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea)

Country: Republic of Korea

Authors: Jung, Chi-jung - Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Moon, Il-chul - Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology

Abstract: The sensor-shooter network is a core element of NCW (Network Centric Warfare) and EBO (Effects-Based Operation), and the network’s reliability and efficiency is important in conducting an operation associated with TST (Time-Sensitive Target). The network reliability and efficiency becomes particularly riskier when the network includes human factors and only limited resources. For instance, key observations on TST are still and often gathered by deployed human scouts who have limited communication resources, i.e. FM and AM communication radio, in the Republic of Korea Army (ROKA). Once the observation on TST is made, the scouts should deliver the information to a distant base, yet the failure of the AM communication, which is a long-range and environment-sensitive communication method, becomes much frequent by the operational environment, i.e. terrain effect. In the case of the AM communication failure, the current FM (Field Manual) and OPORD (Operational Order) of ROKA dictates to reiterate the communication on AM and to keep the radio silence on FM radio, which is a short-distant and reliable communication method, and the FM and the OPORD comes from subject-matter experts. We conjecture that the FM and the OPORD might provide safer operation, but inefficiency and unreliability in the information delivery. This paper explores a potential tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) to emergently create a local communication network through FM and to relay the message from the observer to the scout at a position with better AM communication. The risk and the efficiency becomes two conflicting factors in composing TTP, and we quantitatively model the individual communication behavior with Markov decision process (MDP). The inference on our MDP model on communication provides an action policy in how to create such emergent communication network. We compare the policies from sensitive analyses on parameters to capture the most robust and reliable policy in diverse situations. Also, we compared the chosen policy to human judgments with human-in-the-loop experiments. From this research, we hypothesize that this quantitative analyses and the action policy could be our improved TTP in the field operation.

Paper 075

Abstract Title: The Importance Of Intelligence Analysis In The 21st Century’s Security Environment
Point of Contact (POC): Abdi PEHLİVAN
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: 0090 536 702 8693
POC Organization: Turkish Air War College
Country: Istanbul
Authors: Abdi PEHLİVAN

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Paper 076

Abstract Title: The Decline of Cybernetics as a Transdisciplinary Field
Point of Contact (POC): Stuart A. Umpleby
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: 202-994-1642
POC Organization: The George Washington University
Country: USA
Authors: Stuart A. Umpleby

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(Appendix Here)

Paper 098

Abstract Title: Functionality of Intelligence Support to Command and Control
Point of Contact (POC): Mircea Mocanu
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: +40 734 690 176
POC Organization: none
Country: Romania
Authors: Mircea Mocanu, PhD, retired Romanian Military Intelligence officer

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Paper 099

Abstract Title: Command and Control as part of the Intelligence Cycle
Point of Contact (POC): Mircea Mocanu
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: +40 734 690 176
POC Organization: None
Country: Romania
Authors: Mocanu Mircea PhD, retired Romanian Military Intelligence officer

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Paper 100

Abstract Title: Thoughts on danger, risk, and threat
Point of Contact (POC): Mircea Mocanu
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: +40 734 690 176
POC Organization: None
Country: Romania
Authors: Mocanu Mircea, PhD, retired Romanian Military Intelligence officer

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Paper 110

Abstract Title: The Morality of Cyber Warfare and the Just Warfare Theory
Point of Contact (POC): Tom Wester
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: (262) 527-1955
POC Organization: United States Naval Academy
Country: USA
Authors: Tom Wester

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Paper 118


Point of Contact (POC): Fatih BUYRUK

POC Email Address:

POC Phone Number: +905556260256

POC Organization: Turkish Armed Forces Air War College

Country: Turkey

Authors: (Lieutenant) Buyruk, Fatih - Turkish Armed Forces Air War College

(Lieutenant) Tosun, Ahmet - Turkish Armed Forces Air War College

Abstract: Command and Control systems have became one of the most important elements in the use of air power from the period of First World War to the present time. They're built on several general functions and renewed themselves to the needs of the period. When we look at today's Command and Control systems, we can see that renewal clearly from their names such as C4ISR, C4ISTAR, C5I, C5I2, C5IMP, C5ISR etc. In addition, today's Command and Control systems find more places in military operations with mentioning such terms; effect-based approach, comprehensive approach, network-centric warfare, information superiority, decision superiority etc. Technology has the biggest role over these terms which are unused until a very short time. The technology is changing very quickly and the area of operations expanded into different areas such as near-space, space, and cyber space. All these advancements show that operational environment of future will have a different understanding then today. In the future air operations, it's expected that unmanned platforms and decision support systems will pervade thus human effects are expected to decline in part. In this article, it's studied if human factor has an accelerator effect or prolonging the duration of sensor-to-shooter cycle and slowing down the whole system on Command and Control systems. In the study, it's discussed human effects in advanced Air Command and Control systems of modern countries and international organizations. As a result, it's appeared that air operation's density and sensivity increasing dependence on decision support mechanisms and the interdependence of the human factor and technology is shaped according to the level of the operation.

Paper 119

Abstract Title: The Role of "Agilitator" within the complex endeavors ~Harmonizing Agility Advantage with Personalized System~
Point of Contact (POC): Clifford T. Hagiwara
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: 81-90-1547-1816
POC Organization: Nihon University
Country: Japan
Authors: Clifford T. Hagiwara, Y. Gunji, Y. Kidoguchi, N. Seo, T. Takehara, M. Takasaki

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Paper 122

Abstract Title: Resilience and Agility: Concepts and Quantification

Point of Contact (POC): Igor Linkov

POC Email Address:

POC Phone Number: 617 233 9869

POC Organization: US Army Engineer Research and Development Center

Country: USA

Authors: Igor Linkov, Zachary A. Collier, Cate Fox-Lent, Emanuel Massaro, Alex Ganin and Alex Kott

Abstract: The need to embed greater resilience and agility into the military’s and society’s interconnected systems is imperative to better withstand, recover from, and adapt to natural disasters, disease epidemics, and cyber-security threats. However, differing interpretations of resilience and its underlying concepts and measures complicate efforts to understand and improve proficiency in the area, making it more difficult to adequately prepare for potentially catastrophic events. This presentation will discuss the concepts of resilience and agility, compare and contrast their use in military and civilian applications, and present an integrated methodology by which resilience can be quantified as a property of an interdependent networked system. The proposed methodology combines temporal and operational dimensions of resilience across the domains of complex system operations (Physical, Social and Information). Two approaches will be used to quantify resilience: 1) the Resilience Matrix which implements decision analysis in a matrix-based format to fuse metrics of resilience, and 2) a supply-and-demand model utilizing Network Science concepts.  The model will be applied to case studies that will show how resilience depends on the structural properties of the networked system, such as the trust between different nodes, and demonstrate that there exists a nonlinear relationship between resilience performance and structure of the system in physical, cyber, and social domains.

Paper 125

Abstract Title: C2 Theory vs. Practice: Making Effective Use of Disruptive C2 Technologies in Military Operations

Point of Contact (POC): Per Gustavsson

POC Email Address:

POC Phone Number: +46 768 967662

POC Organization: Swedish National Defence College

Country: Sweden

Authors: Hieb Michael. R. ,Center of Excellence for C4I George Mason University

Abstract: There are many Command and Control (C2) Models that prescribe how to perform C2.There are also many initiatives to measure how effectively C2 is performed. However, in much recent research, the technology often seems to be lost. There have been incredible changes in all areas of technology in the past 10 years. While the contribution of Internet technologies is well recognized, the impact of new sensing technologies as well as improved computing environments is having a profound effect not taken into account by our C2 Models. We scope this work to Tactical C2 technologies.

Developing applications for Tactical C2 is an art, and remains largely unaffected by theory. The practices currently recommended (e.g., Common Data Models, Architecture Standards, Interoperability) are commonly ignored. And it remains a challenge for users to be able to train on, easily use and then adapt the C2 tools developed. It is important to consider the trade-off between the complexity of the underlying software implementations and the simplicity of operation demanded by the end user.

Part of the challenge is definitional, where C2 is defined at such a high level that it includes everything (e.g. “Chat” as C2) with the result that any recommendations from Theory to Practice are extremely weak. In our work, we look at Tactical C2 and what specific practices are useful to develop effective, usable, decision aids for conducting operations. We first survey C2 Models from Boyd’s Loop to the current Command and Control Research Program (CCRP) theory and then present our definition of C2 as it relates to technology. We present two case studies the first is on integrating new Geospatial technology in Army Operations and the second on SAAB’s 9Land C2 – a Battle Management System for 1) Coordination & Decisions, 2) Planning, and 3) Ongoing Operation.

Paper 129

Abstract Title: Advancing C2 Effectiveness at the Tactical Edge Operational Approach and Method with New M2 Capability
Point of Contact (POC): Kevin Diaz
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: 617-506-0734
POC Organization: MERAD
Country: USA
Authors: Diaz, Kevin - MERAD

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