Topic 2: Organizational Concepts and Approaches

This topic examines designing, analyzing, and implementing various approaches that are designed to develop shared intent, awareness and understanding and facilitate collective action (e.g., C2, management, governance, self-synchronization, emergent behaviors)

Paper 015

Abstract Title: Low-level Automation as a Pathway to appropriate Trust in the PED Enterprise: Design of an Adaptive Collaborative Work Environment
Point of Contact (POC): Arthur Wollocko
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: 617 491 3474 x520
POC Organization: Charles River Analytics
Country: US
Authors: Dr. Michael Jenkins, Mr. Arthur Wollocko, Dr. Martin Voshell, Mr. Michael Farry, Ms. Jennifer Danczyk

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Paper 023

Abstract Title: Exploring Tipping Points and State Transitions in Composite Networks
Point of Contact (POC): David Alberts
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: 703 845 2411
POC Organization: IDA
Country: US
Authors: Lisa Scott - Army Research Laboratory
David S. Alberts - Institute for Defense Analyses

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Paper 025

Abstract Title: The Transition from Intelligence Cycle to Intelligence Process: “Network-Centric Intelligence in Narrow Seas”
Point of Contact (POC): Engin BÜKER
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: +905327775547
POC Organization: Turkish Naval War College
Country: Turkey
Authors: Engin BÜKER, Turkish Naval War College

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Paper 030

Abstract Title: Does Group Conflict Improve Performance of Personnel and Organizations? Or Does It Really Matter?

Point of Contact (POC): Russell E Bryant Jr

POC Email Address:

POC Phone Number: (202) 781-1973

POC Organization: Program Executive Office (Integrated Warfare Systems)

Country: USA

Authors: No other Authors


There are several approaches to improving individual and group performance, as well as several models representing of how group dynamics can be summarized. Recently it has been proposed that organizational conflict can improve overall performance for individuals and the group. A model for reflecting how an organizational group forms and adjusts to its members is reflected by the forming, storming, norming, and performing framework of Tuckman (Wiki (a)). Morieux and Tollman (2014) suggest that performance can be improved through some level of conflict and resolution. These two aspects are explored through reflecting on how different levels of organizations and group have responded when they experienced conflict, and then possibly moved to newer or different levels of performance and interaction. The results may show that in some instances the performance seems to have improved for now, while several may demonstrate different results in performance and interaction as a result of the organizations’ conflicts. At the same time the number and characterization of interactions, or encounters, has an impact for satisfaction and successful perception of the performance of organizations as represented through the ‘Happiness assessment equation’ of Rutledge, et al. (2014). This paper will explore several possible implications for interactions and possible mitigation of detrimental interaction results.


Any number of development and leadership frameworks present models for group dynamics and interactions. Mr. Tuckman (Wiki (a)) has developed the rather widely accepted and utilized ‘forming, storming, norming, and performing’ model representing how a team of individuals come together and transition through the stages to hopefully demonstrate successful performance. Mr. Morieux and Mr. Tollman (2014) within their article entitled “The surprising secret of happier, more productive organizations: conflict”, suggest that conflict within a group or organization seems to suggest that performance is improved. This point will be explored through analyses, discussion of several instances of conflict and interactions from international, national, organizational, and intra-organizational perspectives. A selection of interactions will be discussed and assessed in part utilizing an expectations/happiness equation for a style of determining whether the interactions provide some encouragement with respect to learning through the interactions and reflection on them. This expectations/happiness equation (Eq (1)) was developed through the research of Rutledge, et al. (2014), via research on the interactions of expectations and rewards which included analysis of neural responses to event/instance choices, results, and reflection.

This paper will attempt to assess whether this interaction assessment equation (Eq (1)) could be useful in assessment/analysis of international interactions, a regime beyond that of the original study. Does this equation provide any assistance with understanding the group interactions/dynamics which are summarized by the phases identified by Tuckman (Wiki (a))? Further, this paper will attempt to determine whether that equation might be of assistance when considering the class of ill-defined/wicked’ circumstances that may typify most group dynamics and interactions. Does this Equation assist in understanding and working within ‘ill defined’ problems and circumstances as discussed within the article “A Remarkable Military Feat - The Hungnam Redeployment, December 1950” ((Chisolm, 2012), of the Naval War College Review of 2012) regarding the Korean War embarkation/redeployment from Hungnam, Korea?

Could this perspective and the Eq (1) assist in reducing or limiting the consequences of conflict which are unproductive to improved performance and activities within and between organizations?

Thus, this paper will hopefully cause readers to reflect on group interactions, the expectations, and reward associated with those interactions and the phases which interaction cycle and re-cycle through.


-(Chisolm, 2012) – Chisolm, Donald. A REMARKABLE MILITARY FEAT – The Hungnam Redeploymnet, December 1950, Naval War College Review, Naval War College Press, Newport:RI, Spring 2012, Vol. 65, No. 2.
-(Morieux & Tollman, 2014) – Morieux, Yves and Peter Tollman. The Surprising Secret of happier, More Productive Organizations: Conflict, Government Executive, Government Executive Media Group, 600 New Hampshire Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20037, June 27, 2014.
-(Rutledge, et al., 2014) – Rutledge, Robb B., Nikolina Skandali, Peter Dayan, and Raymond J. Dolan. A computational and neural model of momentary subjective well-being’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, , Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 111, 12252-12257 (2014).
-(Tuckman, Wiki (a)) – Wikipedia, , Tuckman’s stages of group development, accessed 03 Nov 2014,'s_stages_of_group_development

Paper 041

Abstract Title: Adopting Emerging Technology to Enhance Organizational Performance
Point of Contact (POC): Ms. Amanda George
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: 619 553 2066
POC Organization: Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific
Country: US
Authors: Captain George Galdorisi (U.S. Navy – Retired), Ms. Amanda George, Mr. Michael Morris, Ms. Angela Bowers

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Paper 042

Abstract Title: Adopting Emerging Technology to Enhance Organizational Performance

Point of Contact (POC): Ms. Amanda George

POC Email Address:

POC Phone Number: 619 553 2066

POC Organization: Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific

Country: US

Authors: Mr. Zachery Campbell, Mr. Jose Carreno, Captain George Galdorisi (U.S. Navy – Retired), Ms. Amanda George, Mr. Mark Rawlins, Ms. Rachel Volner,

Abstract: Over the past decade, within the Corporate Strategy and Strategic and Business Planning Competency, the Corporate Strategy Group (CSG) at SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) has used Web 2.0 technologies to provide strategic situational awareness to SSC Pacific’s leadership and workforce.  This paper will describe the evolution, successes and challenges associated with the use of Web 2.0 technologies by the CSG.  By using a combination of qualitative and quantitative measures, the CSG has tracked its effectiveness in pushing information and analysis “to the edge” of SSC Pacific’s internal network, and providing situational awareness to a larger proportion of the workforce.  The experience of the CSG has highlighted a number of best practices, and ongoing challenges, in the use of Web 2.0 tools to disseminate information and analysis widely across a large organization.

The CSG was chartered by senior leadership to provide an assessment of the current external environment, as described in Carreno et al, “Adopting Emerging Technology to Enhance Organizational Performance,” 14th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Washington, D.C., June 15-17, 2009. Initially, the CSG focused on providing senior leadership with a top-level brief and relied on that information “trickling down” to the rest of the workforce.  By embracing Web 2.0 technologies, the CSG increased its reach across the organization by delivering information directly to the scientists, engineers, and project managers at the “deckplate” level. 

Paper 054

Abstract Title: Adaptive Planning & Execution (APEX): From Concept to Reality

Point of Contact (POC): John Anderson

POC Email Address:

POC Phone Number: 703-626-5646

POC Organization: Cougaar Software, Inc.

Country: USA

Authors: John A. Anderson, Cougaar Software, Inc.

Abstract: The Marine Corps Adaptive Planning (MCAP) Project is an S&T effort funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) in cooperation with the USMC. MCAP was designed to implement the Adaptive Planning and Execution (APEX) concepts defined by the DoD Adaptive Planning Roadmap, and provides a suite of integrated decision support tools to facilitate dynamic, collaborative planning, assessment, and execution monitoring for MAGTF operations. By digitizing the mission plan and its assumptions, and subsequently monitoring its evolution and execution with related battlespace information in the operational environment, a foundation is established for various information dominance goals such as: integration of Operations, Logistics and Intelligence; Sense and Respond Logistics (S&RL); and Big Data analysis of battlespace operations. This paper presents the APEX and S&RL concepts and illustrates how the MCAP system has implemented them to establish a foundation for collaborative planning and execution management supported by shared situational awareness.

The APEX Living Plan concept assumes that mission orders and plans can be semantically represented to express task assignments, and when tied to the battlespace environment, execution can be monitored and the plans managed during execution to reflect progress and changes over time. Leveraging a distributed shared data environment, MCAP supports collaborative planning between staff members and Command Operations Centers (COCs) at multiple echelons. Marines can collaboratively plan within and across command echelons and supporting/supported organizations, sharing both knowledge and processes appropriate to their common or interdependent activities.

Designed to support the Marine Corps Planning Process (MCPP), MCAP’s implementation of Living Plans integrates all the essential information about a plan into a machine-interpretable representation that integrates mission objectives and commander’s intent, tasks and capability requirements, force assignments, and the resources necessary to support the tasks. Living Plans characterize the phases, tasks, sequels and branches of a mission, and associate pre- and post-conditions with the tasks to facilitate progress monitoring and selection of alternatives. Intelligent software agents can reason over the content of a Living Plan, determine resource requirements for tasks, calculate time-phased demand estimates for sustainment, and automatically generate logistics estimates and support plan components.

A net-centric data sharing environment supporting shared situational awareness (SSA) is an essential component of an APEX implementation. Living Plans are maintained continuously within a networked, collaborative environment with access to current operational, intelligence, and logistics information, including available resources and supplies. MCAP planning supports SSA by leveraging constantly updated battlefield force and supply status information, as well as shared awareness of battlespace events and decisions by other commands and users. The system supports the users by assessing the status information against operational requirements to identify gaps and to make corresponding recommendations, whether that be during initial planning, execution, or replanning due to changes in the battlefield. Automatic triggers linked to authoritative sources alert leaders and planners to events and changes in critical conditions that may warrant intervention, including evaluation of battlespace conditions, specific actions, or detailed response planning.

During mission execution, MCAP monitors and reports task assignments and activities from acknowledgement to completion and reports their status to appropriate users across the force structure. Incorporating S&RL concepts, the intelligent agents can monitor consumption of supplies associated with the mission over time and in-context with the operational conditions. Based on this data, more accurate consumption rates and planning factors can be developed, resulting in more accurate logistics estimates and life cycle information for future operations, which can lead to more efficient logistics support and reduction of “Iron Mountains” of supplies.

Paper 055

Abstract Title: They didn’t all call it Auftragstaktik: Perspectives on the Past, Present, and Future of Mission Command

Point of Contact (POC): Marius Vassiliou

POC Email Address:

POC Phone Number: 703-887-8189

POC Organization: Institute for Defense Analyses

Country: USA

Authors: Vassiliou, Marius S.
Institute for Defense Analyses

Abstract: Mission command is a C2 framework of varying degrees of decentralization, potentially investing lower levels of a hierarchy—which remains essentially intact—with considerable autonomy. It involves a broadening in the allocation of decision rights, but in practice can also stimulate wider patterns of interaction and entail increased information distribution. Although approaches similar to Mission Command have been applied at times throughout history, modern notions of Mission Command, which would much later come to be known as Auftragstaktik, have their roots in 18th and 19th century Prussia, arguably beginning as far back as Frederick the Great. The theory and practice underwent a century of evolution in the Prussian and German armies, from the aftermath of the Napoleonic wars through the Austro-Prussian and Franco-Prussian wars. Mission Command found difficult application in the complex German offensive of 1914 during the First World War, but was used to devastating effect in the early stages of the Second. There was also a parallel naval tradition very similar to Mission Command, embraced by the United States Navy in the early 20th Century but going back at least to Admiral Nelson at Trafalgar. Since the 1950s many modern military establishments have adopted Mission Command with varying degrees of seriousness and success. Mission Command’s notions of empowering the judgment and initiative of subordinates who are close to the action appeal to many modern theories of business and organizations, and thus it has recently attracted the attention of the nonmilitary business literature. For it to succeed, in the military or in business, it must be a serious and inextricable part of the deep culture of an organization. It cannot be just a collection of empty words in a mission statement or doctrinal publication, for that will result only in cynicism, disaffection, and ineffectiveness.

Paper 056

Abstract Title: Kick-start your multi-party collaboration with Profiler
Point of Contact (POC): Lisette de Koning
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: 0031622461193
POC Organization: TNO
Country: The Netherlands
Authors: Lisette de Koning, Floor Thönissen, Kees van Dongen, Thom de Vries, Peter Essens

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Paper 071

Abstract Title: Seeing is believing; hearing is understanding: Building real trust through virtual tools
Point of Contact (POC): Arild Bergh
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: +47 63 80 73 27
POC Organization: Norwegian Defence Research Establishment
Country: Norway
Authors: Bergh, Arild - Norwegian Defence Research Establishment

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Paper 081

Abstract Title: C2 efficiency exploitation from signs and signals to means and modes

Point of Contact (POC): Yong-Gang Qin

POC Email Address:

POC Phone Number: 

POC Organization: Chinese Institute Of Command and Control 

Country: China

Authors: Yong-Gang Qin

Abstract: The command and control (C2) system comprises of two basic subsystems including technical system (TS) and organizational system (OS). Along with the information revolution, C2 system has undergone great development. However, the efficiency improvement is mainly achieved by automatically transmitted, fused and displayed information in TS. In order to further improve C2 efficiency, the breakthrough should be explored in the interaction of the two subsystems of C2 system, not in the basic functions of the TS itself. Signs and signals are to be exploited for C2 agility in a variety of missions and circumstances. This paper will discuss the C2 efficiency exploitation under the dynamic mechanisms to interact the two subsystems of C2 system. We will discuss the exploitation of signs and signals which including the content, format and assessment indicator in a standard manner, realizing data connection between C2 signs and signals and TS database, as well as  achieving standard procedure and C2 means and modes transformation, for optimizing and improving C2 effectiveness.

Paper 086

Abstract Title: Bringing new arrangements to C2 – Experiments with social information
Point of Contact (POC): Bard Reitan
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: +47 63 80 77 35
POC Organization: Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI)
Country: Norway
Authors: Reitan, Bard K - Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI)
Darisiro, Ramin - The Norwegian Defence University College
Elstad, Ann-Kristin - Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI)
Gran, Cecilie Jackbo - Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI)

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Paper 095

Abstract Title: Increasing trust in network situation awareness
Point of Contact (POC): Regine Lecocq
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: 1-418-844-4000 ext.: 4124
POC Organization: Defence R&D Canada - Valcartier
Country: Canada
Authors: Defence R&D Canada - Valcartier:
Lavigne Valérie - Lecocq Régine - Martineau Étienne – Mokhtari Marielle

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Paper 111

Abstract Title: Command and Control in Multiteam Systems: Measuring and Building Trust between People and Groups
Point of Contact (POC): Michael R. Hieb
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: 703-993-3990
POC Organization: George Mason University
Country: USA
Authors: Michael R. Hieb

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Paper 123

Abstract Title: Moving from C2 Agility from a theory to a NATO Practice
Point of Contact (POC): Bulent Soykan
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: 757-773-8487
POC Organization: NATO HQ SACT
Country: NATO
Authors: Bulent Soykan, NATO HQ SACT
Dr. David S. Alberts, IDA

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Paper 130

Abstract Title: US Government Response to Pandemics: An Analysis of the Lack of Interoperable Data and Inefficient C2 Structure for the Ebola Response

Point of Contact (POC): Gerard Christman

POC Email Address:

POC Phone Number: 571-372-4645

POC Organization: DoD CIO Information Enterprise Strategy and Policy

Country: USA

Authors: Christman, Gerard Contractor Support to the DoD CIO
Fila, Brian Contractor Support to USPACOM

Abstract: The U.S. Government's decision to become involved in responding to the recent outbreaks of the Ebola virus in Africa has afforded the DoD with access to and participation in various Interagency forums that, in each case, underscored the need for a new approach to organize and marshal the response resources and get them vectored to the acute need much further to the left of the time continuum. Methods of organizing, coordinating, and collaborating familiar to the last millennia must be re-examined, replaced, and agreed with key stakeholders. These include shared situational awareness data from world and national health authorities, agreed frameworks for international response a priori, interoperable and machine interpretable data to shift the cognitive burden from health informatics analysts to the machine. This paper will use the United Assistance operation as a Case Study and as a basis to examine these critical issues.