Topic 12: ISR for Decision Making

This topic addresses how ISR support to operations will evolve in concert with C2 adaptations to emerging threats, new technologies, and the velocity of information. Papers should explore how future intelligence analysis processes, tools, and /or technologies will enable agile decision making across scales and organizational boundaries. Of particular interest are concepts that extend beyond "conventional" temporal, geo-spatial, and network-based representation of data.

Paper 004

Abstract Title: Applying Multi-sensor Information Fusion Technology to Problems of National Defense in the Complicated Social, Information, And Communication Environment
Point of Contact (POC): John Younker
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: 678-223-3205
POC Organization: Sensor Fusion Technology
Country: US
Authors: Dr. Buddy H Juen, John Younker

(Full Paper Here)

Paper 094

Abstract Title: Rethinking Command and Control of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance
Point of Contact (POC): Nicholas P. Cowan
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: +49(0)6371-47-7901
POC Organization: 450th Intelligence Squadron

(Full Paper Here)

Paper 103

Abstract Title: Event-Based Representation to Enhance Trust

Point of Contact (POC): Daniel Zelik

POC Email Address:

POC Phone Number: 937-255-3727

POC Organization: AFRL

Country: US

Authors: Zelik, Daniel - AFRL
Blasch, Erik - AFRL
Buchler, Norbou - ARL
Gluck, Kevin - AFRL

Abstract: A classic disconnect exists between analysts tasked to generate intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) insights and intelligence consumers empowered to exploit their outputs to make decisions, take action, or influence the world (Gardiner, 1989). A significant contributor is the lack of observability of the analytic inference chain, as many intelligence products obscure rather than reveal the underlying rigor of an analysis. Rigor implies a carefulness and exactness in decisions that allows consumers of products to trust the analysis. Without observability, the resultant lack of trust in the intelligence process often manifests as redundant, underutilized, or ignored analytic effort.

Leveraging insights gained from long-term imbeds with professional Distributed Information Fusion operators and other analysts, we employed an advanced Cognitive Systems Engineering (Rasmussen, Pejtersen, 1994; Woods 2005) approach to develop a real time Full-Motion Video (FMV) analysis environment that both expands analytic capacity via improved data visualization and advanced exploitation tools, and employs efficient human-machine teaming as an alternative to using people as stop gaps for technology shortcomings. The unifying frame of reference of this work-centered tool suite is Event-Based Representation (EBR). EBR is a data fusion and Gestalt visualization technique that coordinates automated and user inputs to structure lower level data and activities with respect to operationally meaningful events. A prototype EBR workspace developed to synchronize multiple technological capabilities (including speech-to-text, data feed integration and extraction, automated event detection, and automatic product generation) is currently under evaluation by ISR analysts in the AFRL Analyst Test Bed in order to objectively validate mission impact.

Because EBR is integrated into the analytic inference process, it is hypothesized that this approach provides a mechanism for substantially increasing trust between analysts and consumers without concurrently increasing the effort required to produce the analysis or to engage directly with the customer. EBR thus provides a dynamic, layered analysis output that bolsters confidence in analytic assessments, in turn improving decision-making. The applicability and adaptability of this representation approach to intelligence production performed in support of C2 operations will be highlighted as a method to increase the accuracy, quality, and trust of compiled information fusion products for downstream decision-making.

Paper 108

Abstract Title: C2 of ISR for Responsive Sensing

Point of Contact (POC): Daniel Roberts

POC Email Address:

POC Phone Number: 937 255 8814

POC Organization: Air Force Research Laboratory

Country: USA

Authors: Daniel Roberts

Abstract: Modern intelligence operations present such a severe dissociation between question holders and analysts, analysts and data collection that “sensing” is hardly an appropriate term to describe the actions of the Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) apparatus and the associated Intelligence Community (IC). Sensing is the real-time, cyclic and constructive process by which humans seek information relevant to our needs and are responsive to the actions of our environment. To achieve sensing on a systems scale, we need reforms to Command and Control that enables better direction and coordination of sensors and analytic resources away from unproductive avenues of questioning and towards areas of high potential value. This will require a paradigm shift away from current operations where question holders use analysts to pull from a database populated by an unresponsive collection enterprise. Rather, intelligence questions should be exposed directly to analysts who actively direct sensors and push relevant knowledge to question holders. Through the active consideration of the data space, rather than strict adherence to a collection deck, we can enable greater trust in the completeness and accuracy of intelligence products.

This paper will discuss the benefits of active sensing, the C2 requirements necessary to shift from pulling information from databases to pulling information from the world, and the way these reforms will transform the challenges surrounding data, knowledge, and information. These understandings are built upon studies regarding human sensing and understanding in their own local environment, remote environments apprehended through a single sensor, and remote environments explored by control of multiple sensors, as well as significant observation of operators and analysts throughout the Air Force ISR enterprise. Ultimately, this describes a path towards greater flexibility in ISR operation; the ability to rapidly make decisions and execute them in response to new situations and modified goals.

Paper 109

Abstract Title: Strategic Planning and Tactical Situational Awareness using MECH
Point of Contact (POC): Jyh-Charn Liu
POC Email Address:
POC Phone Number: 979 845 8739
POC Organization: Computer Science & Engineering Department of TAMU
Country: USA
Authors: Jason Lin, Benke Qu, Xing Wang, Stephen George, Jyh-Charn Liu,

(Full Paper Here)